History of Hoplite
A hoplite (from ta hopla meaning tool or equipment) was the most common type of heavily armed foot-soldier in ancient Greece from the 7th to 4th centuries BCE, and most ordinary citizens of Greek city-states with sufficient means were expected to equip and make themselves available for the role when necessary.Feb 9, 2013
When did hoplites start?
The exact time when hoplite warfare was developed is uncertain, the prevalent theory being that it was established sometime during the 8th or 7th century BC, when the “heroic age was abandoned and a far more disciplined system introduced” and the Argive shield became popular.
Why is hoplite important in history?
Ancient Greek hoplite soldiers performed an important function in society and they helped shaped the effectiveness of the Ancient Greek armies. They also played a political role because without them, the army would not be effective and would not enable the armies to protect their lands.
What is a Greek hoplite?
Hoplite infantrymen were the military ideal of ancient Greece and were recruited from the wealthy middling ranks of society, particularly the farmers. They wore bronze armor breastplates, helmets, shin guards, shoulder pads, and sometimes foot protectors, thigh guards and forearm guards.
How did hoplites fight?
How did hoplites fight? Hoplites usually fought in a battle formation called the phalanx. A phalanx was made up of ranks and files. A rank was a row of hoplites, their shields held in their left hands and overlapping slightly.
When was the Acropolis created?
Athens has the best-known acropolis, built during the second half of the 5th century bc. The Athenian acropolis, located on a craggy, walled hill, was built as a home of Athena, the patron goddess of the city.
What do helots mean?
1 Helot : a member of a class of serfs in ancient Sparta. 2 : someone held in forced servitude : an enslaved person or serf.
What did hoplites look like?
The hoplite carried a large circular shield (hoplon or aspis) some 80 cm (30 in.) in diameter and weighing as much as 8 kg. This was made of wood or stiff leather, faced with bronze, and was held with the left arm placed through a central band (porpax) and gripped via a strap (antilabe) attached to the shield rim.
What were hoplite spears made of?
Spears measured six to eight feet in length, but only an inch in diameter. A typical spear weighed between two and four pounds. The spear’s shaft was made from cornel or ash wood, with an iron spearhead, and a bronze butt spike on the opposite end.
What did Spartan hoplites wear?
In response to Iphicrates’ victory over Sparta in 392 BC, Spartan hoplites started abandoning body armour. Eventually, they wore almost no armour apart from a shield, leg greaves, bracelets, helmet and a robe.
When did hoplite warfare end?
Between 356 and 342 BC Phillip conquered all city states in the vicinity of Macedon, then Thessaly and then Thrace.
Who were the helots and what did they do?
helot, a state-owned serf of the ancient Spartans. The ethnic origin of helots is uncertain, but they were probably the original inhabitants of Laconia (the area around the Spartan capital) who were reduced to servility after the conquest of their land by the numerically fewer Dorians.
Did hoplites use swords?
Sword. As a secondary weapon, hoplites are known to have carried a short sword known as the xiphos which was made from iron or bronze depending on the era. This was used in the event of a broken spear, or if close melee combat was necessary.
Who won at mantinea?
The great Battle of Mantinea (also called Second Mantinea to distinguish it from the events of 418) was a technical victory for Thebes in the strictly military sense, but (as Xenophon noted) it was actually indecisive: Epaminondas’s death permanently crushed Theban hopes of leadership in Greece.
Who invented the hoplite phalanx?
In the 16th century, Spanish troops armed with pike and harquebus introduced the first phalanx of the gunpowder agesolid columns of infantry known as battles. Usually the harquebusiers were drawn up on the corners of battles 25 ranks deep.
How many oars are in a trireme?
A trireme was an Ancient Greek warship. They were the fastest, deadliest ships in the ancient world. They were called triremes because they had three tiers of oars. Soldiers stood on deck, while 170 oarsmen sat below.
Who owns the Acropolis?
|Visitors||1,666,286 (June 2017May 2018)|
|Owner||Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Tourism|
|Public transit access||Akropoli|
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What happened at the Acropolis?
On September 26, 1687, the Venetians bombarded the Acropolis and decimated the Parthenon, which was a powder munitions depot at the time, leaving it at the mercy of looters, vandals and even tourists; many priceless artifacts were lost.
What is the significance of the Acropolis?
The Acropolis of Athens and its monuments are universal symbols of the classical spirit and civilization and form the greatest architectural and artistic complex bequeathed by Greek Antiquity to the world.
Why did the helots revolt?
Around 660 B.C., the Spartans attacked the Argives, who demolished the Spartans. The report of Sparta’s lost gave encouragement to the Helots who started a revolt against Sparta, which is now known as the Second Messenian War?.
What did the Spartans do to the helots?
Spartans, who were outnumbered by the Helots, often treated them brutally and oppressively in an effort to prevent uprisings. Spartans would humiliate the Helots by doing such things as forcing them to get debilitatingly drunk on wine and then make fools of themselves in public.
How did the Spartans treat the helots?
Helots were ritually mistreated, humiliated and even slaughtered: every autumn the Spartans would declare war on the helots so they could be killed by a member of the Crypteia without fear of religious repercussion. Uprisings and attempts to improve the lot of the helots did occur, such as the Conspiracy of Cinadon.
Did the first person to run a Marathon died?
Pheidippides is said to have run from Marathon to Athens to deliver news of the victory of the battle of Marathon.
|Born||c. 530 BC Athens|
|Died||c. 490 BC Athens|
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Was Leonidas king of Sparta?
Leonidas I (/li??n?d?s, -ds/; Greek: ????????; died 19 September 480 BC) was a king of the Greek city-state of Sparta, and the 17th of the Agiad line, a dynasty which claimed descent from the mythological demigod Heracles and Cadmus.
Where did Pheidippides run?
relates that a trained runner, Pheidippides (also spelled Phidippides, or Philippides), was sent from Athens to Sparta before the battle in order to request assistance from the Spartans; he is said to have covered about 150 miles (240 km) in about two days.
How many hoplites did Sparta?
Trained from boyhood for battle, Greek hoplites face off at spear point. (Tanagra I) took place that involved over 25,000 Spartan hoplites. As the battle unfolded, Spartan spearmen carried the day on their right with the help of traitorous Thessalian horsemen who deserted the Athenians just as the fighting began.
What is the hoplite revolution?
According to the theory of a hoplite revolution, these new hoplite-level men forced the aristocrats to share political power by threatening to refuse to fight and thereby cripple the community’s military defense.
What was the main weapon on a trireme?
The principal weapon of the trireme was the bronze-sheathed battering ram affixed to the prow which was used to sink enemy ships.
Is 300 a true story?
Like the comic book, the 300 takes inspirations from the real Battle of Thermopylae and the events that took place in the year of 480 BC in ancient Greece. An epic movie for an epic historical event.
Does the city of Sparta still exist?
Sparta (Greek: ?????? Sprti [?sparti]) is a town and municipality in Laconia, Greece. It lies at the site of ancient Sparta. The municipality was merged with six nearby municipalities in 2011, for a total population (as of 2011) of 35,259, of whom 17,408 lived in the city.
What is a dory weapon?
The dory or doru (/?d?ru?/; Greek: ????) is a spear that was the chief spear of hoplites (heavy infantry) in Ancient Greece. The word “dory” was first attested by Homer with the meanings of “wood” and “spear”. Homeric heroes hold two dorata (Greek: ??????, plural of ????) (Il.
Who is the enemy of Greece?
Only the threat of invasion by a foreign enemy made the Greeks forget their quarrels and fight on the same side. Their biggest enemy were the Persians, who came from an area around modern day Iran.
Was Sparta or Athens better?
Sparta is far superior to Athens because their army was fierce and protective, girls received some education and women had more freedom than in other poleis. First, the army of Sparta was the strongest fighting force in Greece.
What did hephaistos and Ares have in common?
What did Hephaistos and Ares have in common? They were both in love with Aphrodite.
At what age did the Spartan males enter the agoge?
At the age of 7, Spartan boys were removed from their parents’ homes and began the agoge, a state-sponsored training regimen designed to mold them into skilled warriors and moral citizens.
Can helot become a Spartan?
They were of a higher social class than the helots, and yet there is no evidence that any of them were made citizens for the military service they rendered at Plataea. If the perioeci and mothakes could not gain Spartan citizenship, it is highly improbable that helots could.
What is the agoge in ancient Greece?
One factor was the agoge, the Greek city-state’s educational and training system, which used harsh, extreme and sometimes cruel methods to prepare boys to be Spartan citizens and soldiers. The agoge aimed to instill soldierly virtues: strength, endurance, solidarity, as the late Canadian historian Mark Golden wrote.
What part of the body did the greave protect?
The primary purpose of greaves is to protect the tibia from attack. The tibia, or shinbone, is very close to the skin, and is therefore extremely vulnerable to just about any kind of attack.
How did hoplites fight what was their fighting formation called?
The hoplite phalanx of the Archaic and Classical periods in Greece (c. 800350 BC) was the formation in which the hoplites would line up in ranks in close order. … Battles between two phalanxes usually took place in open, flat plains where it was easier to advance and stay in formation.
Did hoplites throw spears?
The Classical Greek warriors were of 2 types: spearman (hoplites) & javelin throwers (peltast); now in Greek vase ? Art there are images of a hoplite throwing a spear via a loop attached to the spear to make it go farther. But mostly the hoplite use the spear for close combat.
Where did the battle of mantinea happen?
Why did the Corinthian war happen?
The war was caused by dissatisfaction with Spartan imperialism in the aftermath of the Peloponnesian War (431404 BC), both from Athens, the defeated side in that conflict, and from Sparta’s former allies, Corinth and Thebes, who had not been properly rewarded.
When did the battle of mantinea happen?
Why are hoplites called hoplites?
The word hoplite (Greek: ??????? hoplt?s; pl. ??????? hopl?tai) derives from hoplon (????? : hplon; plural hpla ????), referring to the hoplite’s shield. In the modern Hellenic Army, the word hoplite (Greek: o?????? : oplts) is used to refer to an infantryman.
What are the 3 types of Greek drama?
The three genres of drama were comedy, satyr plays, and most important of all, tragedy.
When did the phalanx start and end?
During the hundred years from 431 to 331 BCE, however, the phalanx evolved into a mobile, disciplined, tactically-flexible force, that supplemented by cavalry and light infantry, provided a talented general with the capability of meeting and triumphing over any other army of its day.
What is a bank of oars?
bank of oars. [banco, Sp.] A seat or bench for rowers in the happily all but extinct galley: these are properly called the athwarts, but thwarts by seamen. The common galleys have 25 banks on each side, with one oar to each bank, and four men to each oar.
How long did the Peloponnesian War last?
The Peloponnesian War is the name given to the long series of conflicts between Athens and Sparta that lasted from 431 until 404 BC.
Who fought in the Peloponnesian War?
The Peloponnesian War was a war fought in ancient Greece between Athens and Spartathe two most powerful city-states in ancient Greece at the time (431 to 405 B.C.E.). This war shifted power from Athens to Sparta, making Sparta the most powerful city-state in the region.